Ayika

CAUSES

Air Pollution

       Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth’s atmosphere. It may cause diseases, allergies and also death of humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. Human activity and natural processes can both generate air pollution.           

      In 2014, Electricity generation by source of coal is at 40.8%. These thermal power plants are one of the main artificial sources of producing toxic gases and particulate matter. Fossil fuel power plants cause the emission of pollutants such as NOx, SOx, CO2, etc. On an average, a person consume 562,500 kWh of electricity. One KWH of electricity generate 1.09 kg of carbon dioxide which means one individual generate 616 tons of CO2 in his lifetime.

        “Most air pollution comes from energy use and production,” says John Walke, director of the Clean Air Project, part of the Climate and Clean Air program at NRDC. “Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air.” And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. “Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and methane raises the earth’s temperature,” Walke says. “Another type of air pollution is then worsened by that increased heat: Smog forms when the weather is warmer and there’s more ultraviolet radiation.” Climate change also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants.

Water Pollution

      Water  pollution is the contamination of  water   bodies (e.g. lakesriversoceansaquifers and groundwater), usually as a result of human activities.

        There are millions of people all over the world who don’t have access to water, or, if they have access, that water is unable to be used. About 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water and 3% of it is actually freshwater that is fit for human consumption. Around two-thirds of that is tucked in frozen glaciers and unavailable for our use. According to WWF, some 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.

         Clean drinking water is scarce and there are millions of people across this globe who spend their entire day searching for it. Yet, people who have access to safe, clean drinking water take it for granted and don’t use it wisely.

           Water scarcity involves water crisis, water shortage, water deficit or water stress. Water scarcity can be due to physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity. Physical water scarcity refers to a situation where natural water resources are unable to meet a region’s demand and economic water scarcity is a result of poor water management resources.

         In 2015, NASA’s satellite data revealed that 21 of the world’s 37 large aquifers are severely water- stressed. With growing populations, researchers indicated that this crisis is only likely to worsen. On an average, an individual consume 73,000 liters of water in a year and largely dependent on either ground water our rivers.

       CHILDREN OF A CULTURE BORN IN A WATER-RICH ENVIRONMENT,

       WE HAVE NEVER REALLY LEARNED HOW IMPORTANT WATER IS TO US.

       WE UNDERSTAND IT, BUT WE DO NOT RESPECT IT.
                                                                                                                                           – WILLIAM ASHWORTH

Overuse of fertilizers and pesticides

        The toxic chemicals found in fertilizers can be absorbed into the plants and enter the food chain via vegetables and cereals. However, the largest health risk is when the chemicals flow into ground water, which is then extracted for drinking.

       Fertilizers and pesticides both have definite pros and cons associated with their use. Both types of chemical tend to increase yields, and thus make a significant difference in food production, particularly in countries that struggle periodically with famines. On the other hand, they both can cause water pollution when erosion carries the chemicals off of farms along with eroded soils after each rainfall. There is also concern by some authorities that pesticides pose a risk, not only to non target animal and plant species, but to humans as well.

        According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, pesticides have as yet incompletely understood effects on humans. Most people are exposed to a certain level of pesticides. Farmers who experience routine exposure to pesticides have exhibited neurological symptoms such as headache and hand tremors. Children, in particular, may be more susceptible to negative effects resulting from pesticide exposure. Pesticide runoff can have devastating effects on nontarget organisms as well. For example, roundup, an extremely common herbicide used in agriculture, is highly toxic to fish and amphibians. The National Coalition for Pesticide-Free Lawns says, “Of 30 commonly used lawn pesticides, 19 are linked with cancer or carcinogencity, 13 are linked with birth defects, 21 with reproductive effects, 26 with liver or kidney damage, 15 with neurotoxicity, and 11 with disruption of the endocrine system.”            

          Green Vegetables with an extensive use of pesticides this has become a slow poison. The consumption of these vegetables is causing infections, brain diseases and even cancer.